Posted by: Johan Normark | January 6, 2016

Encyclopedia of the Ancient Maya

I almost forgot that I contributed with a short text on the Maya causeway/sacbe for the Encyclopedia of the Ancient Maya (edited by Walter R. T. Witschey). The link leads to the unedited text I compiled in 2014. The final and printed version will not appear here.

Posted by: Johan Normark | January 3, 2016

Returning to active blogging

Two years ago (December 21, 2013) I decided to stop active blogging due to an increasing burden of work, etc. I still have plenty to do but I feel that blogging actually helped my thought process because I often summarized or commented on research papers, etc. Now I feel a desire to continue with that activity although it will still be kept at a minumum.

The date of the previous decision was one year after the “end of the world”. Now we are more than three years into the “postapocalyptic” world and I have just published an article on blogging about the fringes of archaeology. I will most likely not write much about these fringes in the future unless there is some “2027” connection. I shall focus on research papers that I find interesting. However, January is a busy month so do not expect much until February.

My current interest pushes me into evolutionary theories and in particularly those associated with Bergson, Deleuze, Grosz, and Ingold. I have discussed these before but never in any depth. In the future I will also focus less on Maya archaeology as I am becoming less interested in that field.  

Posted by: Johan Normark | December 30, 2015

Blogging about the end times: Dealing with the fringes of archaeology

An article where this blog is a major part has just been published in an online peer-reviewed journal called AP: Online Journal in Public Archaeology. Here is the abstract:

The 2012-phenomenon is based on the idea that something important was expected to occur on December 21, 2012, a date associated with the ancient Maya Long Count calendar. Even though the date has passed, the overall phenomenon is unlikely to disappear because the dominant themes of the end of the world and/or a transformation of consciousness can be found in other ‘alternative’ histories. These non-academic histories are ultimately apocalyptic in nature. The 2012-phenomenon is also an example of an ‘incorporeal hyperobject’, i.e. an object widely distributed and repeated. It is not anchored in a specifc time-space unit but it is manifested in many different corporeal objects. The 2012-phenomenon is different from the academic Mayanist incorporeal hyperobject because each of them uses different distinctions of what exists or not. These different objects cannot communicate directly in different media ecologies since different distinctions have formed each one. Hence,there can never be a sincere understanding of each camp. Only by perturbing another object can information be translated into meaning. The blog is such a medium that can affect incorporeal hyperobjects. This article discusses the way one blog has interacted with the 2012-phenomenon.
Posted by: Johan Normark | November 3, 2015

Going against the flow

My “reaction” article in Archaeological Dialogues has just been published.

Posted by: Johan Normark | October 14, 2015

Articles on miniature shrines and caves in the Cochuah region

I have uploaded excerpts of two texts on The chapters will be found in the edited volume The Maya of the Cochuah Region: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on the Northern Lowlands (University of New Mexico Press). According to the volume should be available by December 1. The first chapter is about Postclassic miniature shrines and the second chapter is about caves seen from a Deleuzeoguattarian perspective.

INAH is hosting a symposium in Cancun next year:

Settlements and the Urban: Architecture and Archaeology in America and Europe

Symposium 16-18th of May 2016

Changes of human settlements over the last decades have been quite dramatic, and there is an expanding bibliography on settlements and the urban, discussing potentials and problems in recent developments. Architects and landscape architects are directly involved in the process, situated at a particular and interesting position, while archaeologists address the problems in long term perspectives, and work the intricacy of time, settlement and society within an historical framework.

The Architecture, Archaeology and Contemporary City Planning network aims at establishing new kinds of dialogues between architects, archaeologists and historians, looking for new ways of addressing issue of settlement planning, as well as a closer cooperation between these disciplines, that allows to generate alternative interpretations for ancient settlements and new ways of facing challenges in contemporary urbanism and its social actors.

America and Europe exhibit certain differences in settlement distribution, in part related to the particularity of the indigenous past in the Americas, and to the outcome of the violent and exploitative colonial encounter, but also related to later developments. Comparing the intricate relation between time and space in the Americas and Europe help elucidate shared problems and highlight differences. We will also like to see a continued discussion, initiated at prior AACCP events, on visualisation and documentation of various kinds, in particular related to the digital revolution and the use of new technologies, both in record and analysis of ancient and modern cities. Involved in this complex theme, questions of aesthetics, deconstruction and “gestalt” are of major importance.

The first AACCP event took place in Florence 2014, and the proceedings can be found at The second event took place in Valencia and the proceedings are on the way.

Papers addressing contemporary case studies, as well as relevant prehistoric or historic cases are welcome, especially those works that analyse settlement transformations throughout time. We invite interested scholars from various relevant disciplines to a productive and interesting congress, to be realised at the Maya Museum in Cancun, México and organised by the Mexican INAH and the AACCP network. The congress will take place between May 16th and 18th 2016. Abstracts in English or Spanish, with a maximum of 250 words, must be submitted by e-mail before January 15th 2016, including name of the author or co-authors (when applicable), paper title, institution and all contact information. Please note that final oral presentations should not exceed 30 minutes in length.

All submitted abstracts will be evaluated by the committee, and all proposals will be notified before February 15th, when the final program of the symposium will be integrated.

Apart of the formal sessions, there will be complimentary excursion tours, from May 13th to 15th of May. Further information will be issued in the next months.

For more information and submit abstracts, please contact:

The Symposium Committee:

Dr. Per E. Cornell. Professor, Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Dr. Giorgio Verdiani. Professor, Dipartimento di Architettura- (DIDA). ICAR/17 – Disegno. Università degli Studi Firenze, Italy

Dr. Pablo Rodríguez Navarro. Professor, Departamento de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica. Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain

Arql. Adriana Velázquez Morlet. Director, Centro INAH Quintana Roo. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico

Posted by: Johan Normark | September 21, 2015

The Elders and the Hills

Ten days ago (on 9/11) Stefan Permanto successfully defended his dissertation thesis in social anthropology at the School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg. Here is the abstract of his thesis entitled The Elders and the Hills: Animism and Cosmological Re-Creation among the Q’eqchi’ Maya in Chisec, Guatemala:

This thesis is based on fieldwork conducted in the municipality of Chisec in the department of Alta Verapaz in Guatemala. Within the context of post-war Maya cultural emergence and the recent introduction of non-indigenous elements this study examines the cosmological notions and ritual practices among a group of elderly Q’eqchi’ men and women. The main motive for this endeavor is the expressed concern of the elders that the younger generations of today are diverting from what the elders consider to be the traditional ways of life that are inherited from their ancestors. The elders fear that if traditional cosmological notions are lost it may eventually wreak havoc in the world. Therefore, these elders have come together not only to narrate and share their vital knowledge amongst themselves but also to transmit it to future generations.

Theoretically, the thesis is inspired by the recent re-definition of the concept of animism within anthropological theory. Stripping the concept of earlier evolutionary notions that debunks it as only irrational understandings of the world, the cosmological notions and ritual practices of the Q’eqchi’ elders are taken at face value and approached as ways of being-in-the-world. While this ‘new’ animism has been deployed in studies among indigenous peoples from Amazonia to South East Asia it has been conspicuously absent in Mesoamerica. By applying the new perspectives on animism to the cosmology of the Q’eqchi’ elders this study contributes not only to the general body of anthropological studies of animism and indigenous societies but expands it to include the Maya region.

Since culture is neither static nor homogeneous the work and ambition of the elders to preserve and transmit their inherited knowledge inevitably gives fuel to a process of rediscovering and re-creating their cosmological roots and ritual practices: a cosmology the elders assert is crucial not only for human and non-human wellbeing but also for a sustainable ecology and cosmic equilibrium.

Posted by: Johan Normark | September 16, 2015

Maya and Iron Maiden

The title track on Iron Maiden’s latest album “The Book of Souls” is about the Maya (the cover is also supposed to depict Eddie as a Maya…). Here is the song and you find the lyrics below (some of it is fairly accurate):

Sacrifices buried with kings
Accompany them on a journey with no end
To an afterlife that’s rich with fruit of all the gods

And to face the demons
Of their underworld hauntsThe sentient is sent to seek out all the truth
A flight to earth that is a given from his birth
To rise from ashes of the dead
Out of the fire is sent to fulfil man’s desire
By power day and night and death he ruled them
The sky and earth and the fires too
Two headed reptile symbol of his reign
Universes of the underworld
A life that’s full of all the wealth and riches
Can never last for an eternity
After living in a golden paradise
The ultimate sacrifice

Prophecy of sky gods, the sun and moon
Passing of old ways will come true soon
Falling of ages, forest of kings
The search for the truth, the book of souls

The rulers of planets and stars
The power of the kings of traders and the wars
Planetary cycles and the phases of the moon
Is in the document a kingdom they will learn
They were praying to the gods of nature
And were living in the cities of stone
Towers reaching upward to the heavens
Sacred wonders for the world unknown
Make their lives be a mystery no more
Records kept and the passing of laws
Sacred gods to the book of lies
When a civilization dies

Prophecy of sky gods, the sun and moon
Passing of old ways will come true soon
Falling of ages, forest of kings
The lost book of souls, destruction begins

Ascending the throne wearing feathers and shells
He brought back their lives from the void
Alien invasion brings nothing but death
Mass exodus and plant life destroyed

Domain of the Earth to the journey of truth
The underworld caves, Mayan slaves
Defeat of the dark Lords
The ultimate proof
In the place where the ancestors rule

The book of souls

Posted by: Johan Normark | September 8, 2015

Articles on water and time in press

Today I received the proof for my upcoming “reaction” article in Archaeological Dialogues (Vol 22:2)”Going against the flow: reaction to Veronica Strang.” A few hours earlier Quaternary International accepted my article “Multi-scalar cognitive time: experiential time, known time, and Maya calendars.” The latter article is to be found in a special issue on the “material dimension of cognition.”

Cochuah book

“In recent years the Cochuah region, the ancient breadbasket of the north-central Yucatecan lowlands, has been documented and analyzed by a number of archaeologists and cultural anthropologists. This book, the first major collection of data from those investigations, presents and analyzes findings on more than eighty sites and puts them in the context of the findings of other investigations from outside the area. It begins with archaeological investigations and continues with research on living peoples. Within the archaeological sections, historic and colonial chapters build upon those concerned with the Classic Maya, revealing the ebb and flow of settlement through time in the region as peoples entered, left, and modified their ways of life based upon external and internal events and forces. In addition to discussing the history of anthropological research in the area, the contributors address such issues as modern women’s reproductive choices, site boundary definition, caves as holy places, settlement shifts, and the reuse of spaces through time.”

Later this year The University of New Mexico Press will publish this anthology (edited by Justine Shaw). It includes two chapters by me:

Postclassic miniature shrines in the Cochuah region

Not only the home of the Earth Lord: Cochuah caves as holy places, holey spaces, and emergent wholes

Posted by: Johan Normark | March 15, 2015

Brief update: the time of tsunamis?

Apart from teaching and supervising a couple of theses I am currently wrapping up two projects: one of my own (Water as an archaeological object) and one as a participant (The early modern town). After this I will be able to focus on my project on time (The necromantic ordering of days). I also have an idea of a future project focused on rare events with broad impact that I can relate to my previous research on time (Black Swan events) and water (i.e. tsunamis). Remains of a tsunami deposits have recently been found in Yucatan but this project intends to focus on the phenomena worldwide (Japan, Indonesia, India, Mediterranean, Norway, etc.).

I recently came back from a 17 days trip to Hainan in China (where they celebrated the Chinese New Year). Later this year I will visit Indonesia and Malaysia again. Hopefully I will be able to squeeze in Myanmar as well since Bagan is one of my must see sites. One month from now I will also go to Nordic TAG in Copenhagen. Apart from my session I will join a plenary discussion regarding the next 30 years in theoretical discussion (I better polish my crystal ball)…

Posted by: Johan Normark | January 10, 2015

Water as a hyperfact

I have just uploaded an article in last year’s Current Swedish Archaeology (volume 22, 2014). The abstract is found below. 

Most entities studied by archaeologists share the same basic necessary conditions. They are limited spatiotemporal units which are continuous within a human frame of sensorial reference. These entities cannot dissolve into their constituent parts without affecting their function, capacity, and morphology. Further, they usually occupy one physical state at a time. The hyperfact, on the other hand, is vastly distributed, it can dissolve into most of its parts without affecting its “essence”, and it can be in several physical states at the same time. Water is a typical hyperfact, existing on multiple scales, from molecules to the hydrological cycle. In this text I show how local manifestations of this hyperfact can be found in ceramics, architectural features, agriculture, water management systems, and regional settlements of the Cochuah region in southern Mexico.

I just uploaded a new article on my site. It is an object-oriented gender study of a queen mentioned in the inscriptions of Yo’okop in the Cochuah region. This is not the final version of the article. I will upload the final version once I receive it. There are only minor changes, such as a caption to the figure in the text.

Posted by: Johan Normark | November 26, 2014

TAG – Manchester

The timetable for this year’s TAG conference (Manchester) is now available. I will give a paper in the session “Assemblage and Archaeology” on Tuesday afternoon, December 16, 2014. Here is my updated abstract.

Temporality, assemblages and Black Swans

Levi Bryant defines time as the duration a machinic assemblage needs to produce an output. The rate of production depends on the assemblage. Since Bryant follows the Bergsonian/Deleuzean order of time, where past and present are merged into a creative flow, the future is not included. Tristan Garcia proposes an order where the present comes first, followed by the past which has less degree of presence. Last comes future which has maximal absence. Future is only a fixed point of reference. Yet, it is this inexistent future cognitive assemblages attempt to predict. Calendar systems are tools for prediction, acting both as bright objects and incorporeal machines in Bryant’s terminology.

As the past of an assemblage grows it becomes more determined which means that origins are open but later trajectories follows the constraints, entanglements and gravity formed by the assemblage itself. Its predicted future becomes increasingly narrower until the assemblage ceases to produce. This end is often an unexpected Black Swan event to the assemblage itself whereas archaeologists, in hindsight, insert a narrative behind the demise. One such narrative is the Maya collapse. Resilience theories and Holling’s adaptive cycle are used as narratives to explain why the “Classic Maya Civilization” reorganized rather than collapsed. To the “post-collapse” Maya themselves the disruptions in assemblages related to the Classic period divine kingship led to a change in the calendar systems. Future was no longer a fixed point in a failed accumulative calendar, but a recurrent point in a cyclical calendar.

Posted by: Johan Normark | October 23, 2014

2012 and the Maya Collapse Ecology in the End Times

This is not the final version of this article. It is to be published in a series of essay clusters on ecology from an object-oriented perspective. Some of these essays are available on O-Zone’s website. This version is incomplete as it lacks an abstract (which is available below), some page numbers. Most importantly, note that the reference “Whitesides and Jenkins” on page 7 is wrong. It should be “Whitesides and Hoopes.”


The 2012-phenomenon includes apocalyptic fantasies regarding an impending collapse of our contemporary society, supposedly prophesized by the ancient Maya and their Long Count calendar. Sometimes connections to the ancient Maya collapse are made. That also happens to be the quite common in academic circles. Some academic researchers believe we can learn from the past failures for future solutions. The objects that were involved in the ancient Maya collapse were not the same as now and therefore we have little to learn from the Maya collapse in relation to our own ecological crisis. The ancient and contemporary Maya’s sensual profiles of ecology, time and space were/are quite different from those found within the “2012-phenomenon” and academia.

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